The Selling of Woodside Park:

The Importance of Architecture in the Development and Marketing

of an Early Twentieth Century Suburban Neighborhood

Presented at

Beyond the Mall: A Symposium on the

Historic Development of Washington, D.C.

Sponsored By

The Latrobe Chapter

of the

Society of Architectural Historians

in cooperation with the

National Building Museum

December 3, 1994


Robert E. Oshel, Ph.D.

Author's Note: A shorter version of this paper was published as the May 1997 issue of The Montgomery County Story, the quarterly publication of the Montgomery County [Maryland] Historical Society. The Montgomery County Story is available from the Montgomery County Historical Society, 301 West Montgomery Avenue, Rockville, Maryland 20850. 301-762-1492.

As of November 14, 1922, Charles W. Hopkins, M.K. Armstrong, and the other investors in the Woodside Development Corporation had a major problem: how to sell building lots in "Woodside Park," their new "home colony" on the 184 acre "Alton Farm" they had just purchased from the heirs of Evening Star owner Crosby S. Noyes. The problem was far from simple. They had paid $160,000 (equivalent to about $1,400,000 in 1994 dollars) for the property and had made a down payment of $40,000, but they still owed $120,000 to the Noyes heirs. This amount had to be paid within five years.(1) In addition, they faced considerable expenses in making their new acquisition ready for sale. Streets had to be built, forest areas had to be at least partially cleared, and existing structures on the farm had to either be removed or made saleable. The inventory of existing structures included not only the Noyes family mansion, but also a substantial barn, a carriage house and stable, a greenhouse,(2) a bowling alley building, two hen houses, a corn house, a boy's carpenter shop, miscellaneous sheds, a pump house, a one-hundred foot tall water tower, and four other houses which had been occupied by farm workers.(3) The ongoing investment was substantial, by the fall of 1923 the Woodside Development Corporation reported it was spending over $1,500 per week simply building roads; over 330 tons of crush rock was going into Tarvia(4) paved streets each week.(5)

Besides having to carry the expenses of a substantial investment, they also had to overcome one other major problem. In real estate development, location is of prime importance. While Woodside Park, which is located between what are now Colesville Road and Georgia Avenue, northof downtown Silver Spring and south of the Beltway in Montgomery County, is considered to be

very close-in and convenient today, in the early 1920s it was on the far fringes of suburban development. The target market for the Woodside Development Corporation's "acre plot" home sites was the upper middle class of Washington, D.C. Although they were relatively affluent, members of the upper middle class did have to work for a living and therefore had to commute downtown every day. Earlier suburban developments, such as Kensington, Maryland, and Silver Spring's Woodside, had succeeded only because they hugged the B&O railroad with its frequent commuter trains and fares comparable in real terms to today's rush hour Metro fares. Areas farther from railroad lines, including large parts of upper Northwest Washington, had not been developed for commuters in the early 1920s. Even the existence of the Washington, Woodside, and Forest Glen trolley line, which ran along what is now Georgia Avenue and connected to trolley lines running to downtown Washington had not spurred development farther from the B&O line in Silver Spring.

By the early 1920s, however, the increasing popularity of the automobile was beginning to make possible suburban development away from the railroad lines. The Woodside Development Corporation was among the first in Silver Spring to realize this and capitalize on it. Upper middle class city dwellers who could afford a car and who wanted to leave the crowded city behind could build a home on one of Woodside Park's acre plots and still commute to their jobs by car in a reasonable time. Prestigious Sixteenth Street had been constructed as far north as Alaska Avenue. Alaska Avenue connected it to Georgia Avenue at the Maryland State Line. In Maryland, Georgia Avenue was still called Brookeville Pike, but the turnpike's toll gates, including the one just south of the pike's intersection with the Colesville and Ashton Turnpike (now Colesville Road), had been removed in 1913 when the state purchased the road.(6) The narrow road was improved with two foot concrete shoulders in 1923, making it much more convenient for cars to pass each other, particularly in bad weather. The Georgia Avenue grade crossing at the B&O railroad was eliminated in 1926 with the construction of the first underpass, known locally as the "subway." Despite its frequent flooding, it facilitated more and more automobile traffic. Its construction, however, marked the end of trolley service to Silver Spring.

Although the automobile made it feasible for Alton Farm to be successfully developed into Woodside Park, the Woodside Development Corporation still had to convince people that they should leave the city, bypass the large areas of Northwest Washington that were just being developed residentially or were still undeveloped, and move out all the way to Maryland.(7) They did this by promoting Woodside Park as a unique environment for construction of well designed, attractive homes. They emphasized both residential architecture and landscape architecture in marketing the neighborhood.

In January 1923 the Woodside Development Corporation filed its proposed subdivision plan, including dedication of land for streets. This filing was made to the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission (WSSC), which after its founding in 1916 was granted approval power over development in suburban Maryland. WSSC approval for the Woodside Park subdivision plan came in April 1924, but the delayed approval had not prevented the Woodside Development Corporation from going full speed ahead with development of the land and sale of lots.

Even before it had completed the purchase of Alton Farm on November 14, 1922, the Woodside Development Corporation began efforts to solve the problem it had created for itself of successfully selling building lots in what was then the far suburbs of Washington. With settlement on the property several days away, the Corporation and the real estate firm of its principals, Hopkins-Armstrong, Inc., began a publicity campaign which capitalized on two major points. First was public interest in the homes and gardens of the rich and famous, in this case Crosby S. Noyes. The second was the desire of people to live in well-designed homes in a well-designed landscape.

These themes were evident in the development's initial publicity. The first public mention of Woodside Park came in the Washington Herald of November 11, 1922. The Herald printed a picture of the Noyes Mansion with the caption "This beautiful estate, known to all Washington as one of the most elaborate homes in the city, is located in the new subdivision called Woodside Park, which is rapidly being turned into an exclusive home colony by the Hopkins Land Company." That same issue carried the first advertisement for Woodside Park. Under the headline "FOREWORD" the ad said: "We desire to announce that we have purchased and will at once begin the development and sale of the beautiful NOYES FARM in Acre Plots . . . featuring winding drives and beautiful landscape effects."(8)

Initial publicity emphasized that a prime goal in developing Woodside Park would be to preserve the beauty of Alton Farm. The new neighborhood would not have the typical Washington street grid. For example, one day after the Herald item, the Washington Post reported the establishment of Woodside Park under the headline "Plans Residential Park on Old Estate." After noting the sale of the property, the story said it would be developed "along lines new to Washington:"

The entire estate, with the exception of the home-place [Noyes mansion] and grounds, will be sub-divided into a residential park of acre plots facing winding drives which follow the contours of the land.

These driveways will be Tarvia surfaced and the engineer in charge of planning, James H. Starkey, is projecting them so as to conserve the natural beauty spots and landscape features of the estate.

One of the features of the plan will be the development of a picturesque park which will entirely cross the farm and through which will wind a stream providing an abundant supply of sparkling water for a community swimming pool which will be constructed in the tract and which is certain to be one of the most popular spots in the community during the summer.

In Effect a Recreation Park

Rustic bridges will be thrown over this stream and winding walkways, shrubbery and flowers will combine to make this recreation park one of the charming spots in this 185 acre residential park.

The beautiful trees and shrubbery of the farm which have been so greatly admired by the people of Washington who have visited the farm will make this property a highly desired residential property.

These plots will be sold, protected by proper building restrictions, such as segregation of the business section, cost of homes, building lines, etc., so as to insure the proper upbuilding of the section.(9)

Large Sites to be Offered

Large sites will be offered for sale on monthly terms, making it possible for persons of moderate means who desire to live in the suburbs with sufficient ground around them to have a garden, chickens, and fruit.(10)

The Woodside Development Corporation also ran large ads in the Post and Evening Star. These ads stated: "We Desire to Announce that We Have Purchased the Beautiful Noyes Farm and Under the Name of WOODSIDE PARK Will Begin the Immediate Development of this Magnificent Estate, Famous for Its Trees and Shrubbery, Parks and Grounds, Walks and Drives, Into a High-Class Residence Park, Offering ACRE PLOTS." Prices were stated to be from 4¢ to 10¢ per square foot. The ad included a picture of the Noyes mansion and grounds and considerable text in smaller print describing the grounds and the plans for their development as well as directions on how to get to the new Woodside Park from downtown Washington.(11)

A large ad in the Post of November 19th emphasized that the Noyes Estate was "recognized as one of the Capital's showplaces and selected as the playgrounds [sic] of Washington business men." It went on say that:

In the development of Woodside Park, the engineers [sic] in charge of the work have aimed to utilize the natural beauty and wonderful planting, that have made this property the talk of Washington, to the fullest extent.

The Tarvia-surfaced driveways will follow the contours of the land, emphasizing its picturesque hills and vales.

One of the attractions of the development will be the laying out of a parkway which will wind through the property for nearly a mile and which will be featured by a community swimming pool, rippling cascades, trees, shrubbery, etc. . . .

These acre plots, so splendidly situated, promise to fill a long-felt want in the suburbs of Washington. . . .

Woodside Park is located in direct line of the most intensive building activity in Washington. It is approached by 16th St., Washington's finest boulevard, and is only 20 minutes' drive to the White House. These reasons, combined with the natural beauty of the estate and the parking plan of development, make Woodside Park acreage lots, at opening prices, the best buy in suburban Washington property on the market today. Drive out and reserve one of these acre plots.(12)

Later press coverage of the new development also emphasized that the landscaped beauty of Alton Farm was to be preserved as Woodside Park was developed. For example, on November 25, 1922 the Washington Times headlined "Noyes Farm Made into Colony" and described social events that took place on the farm. "During the past summer this magnificent estate was the scene of the City Club annual barbecue and tournament. On October 21 5,000 Shriners made merry at the farm on the occasion of their annual ox roast and picnic." The article also noted that the Woodside Development Corporation and its engineer were planning streets to follow the contours of the land and "conserve the natural beauty spots and landscape features of the estate." The Times also ran a large picture of the landscaped grounds of the Alton Farm under a large headline "Scenic Beauty of Woodside Park Lures Home Seekers." The Washington Herald ran the same picture on the same date with the caption "Scene from Woodside Park, where hundreds of prospective home-seekers are flocking. All Washington is familiar with this stretch of picturesque land once known as the Noyes Farm. Woodside Development Corporation is progressing rapidly with this project, developing it into a model home colony."(13)

That same day a large ad in the Star again emphasized the natural beauty and wonderful planting of the property. Prices were from 3½¢ to 10¢ per square foot. The developers also took advantage of public interest in the Noyes mansion; the ad promised hot coffee for all visitors to the mansion house on Sunday afternoon between 3 and 5. Similar large ads also ran that weekend in the Washington Herald and the Washington Times. The large ad in the Post emphasized the natural beauty of Woodside Park. The ad contained almost no text, but instead had a large picture of the treed and landscaped grounds of the "Noyes Farm, Now Woodside Park."(14)

Large ads in all four papers a week later again capitalized on public interest in the Noyes mansion. The ads showed a picture of the mansion and grounds and promised afternoon tea for Sunday visitors to the mansion, which "no matter how cold outside, inside will be warm and cozy." Ads in the Post and the Star noted that the "Woodside Park Acre Plot Colony is only 20 minutes to the White House via 16th Street, Washington's finest boulevard" and that the neighborhood "is an extension of the well-established suburb of Woodside. The public school and churches are in the

Woodside Park Ad, Evening Star, November 25, 1922, p. 21

Woodside Park Ad, Washington Post, December 10, 1922, p. R-3.

immediate neighborhood. Street cars, electric light, and water are available. But while Woodside Park possesses the many city conveniences, it is just far enough away from the rush of the city to enjoy the hush of the country." Ads in the Times and the Herald called Woodside Park "The Best Suburban Buy on the Market!"(15)

Similar ads and news items continued through December 1922 promoting the new development. The developers emphasized their suburban landscape and used public interest in the Noyes mansion to lure prospective visitors to the site. Two days before Christmas, for example, they promised a "Community Christmas Tree for the Kiddies of the Neighborhood and an 'Open House' for the Grown-Ups" at 7 p.m. on the 26th.(16)

Promotion using the same themes continued on a lesser scale in early 1923. Three small ads appeared in the Post and Times during January advising people to "Come Out Today to the Home Place, Noyes Farm, Woodside Park, and sip a cup of tea with us before a cozy fire of chestnut logs, while we help you plan a country home with city convenience on one of the roomy Acre Plots cut from the beautiful Noyes Estate, 20 minutes from downtown."(17)

In addition to appealing to public interest in seeing the Noyes Mansion, the developers wanted to project an image of bustling sales for their new development. Charles Hopkins apparently knew how to get the favorable newspaper publicity he wanted. On January 6, 1923, the Washington Times and the Washington Herald ran identical stories under the headlines "Records Smashed at Woodside Park" and "Woodside Park Closes Big Year."

A city wide movement to migrate to the outlying section of Washington has constituted the most important trend in the local real estate field during the year just closed according to the Hopkins-Armstrong Corp., developer of Woodside Park, the Capital's most successful home colony project.

Woodside Park Ad, Washington Post, February 25, 1923, p. R-4

Woodside Park Ad, Washington Herald, March 10, 1923, p. 8..

During the past few months several prominent real estate firms have formed new home divisions, ideally located, and conforming with the demand for well constructed homes. It was the Hopkins-Armstrong Corporation that conceived the idea of developing a home section in acre plots, situated a stone's throw from the heart of the city.

All records for the sales of home sites were broken when the announcement of the Woodside Park development was brought before the public several months ago. Discriminative buyers virtually flocked to the park with the hope of purchasing home sites. Now comes the statement that approximately $20,000 worth of sites have been passed into the hands of home buyers.

It is recalled that the old Noyes mansion is situated in the heart of Woodside. Perhaps there is no other local homestead that is better known than the Noyes estate. Gracefully stretching out from the farm, hundreds of plots have been made, a goodly number of which are now owned by Washingtonians desiring to erect their homes on plots of beautiful ground.

That the development has proven a noteworthy success is evidenced by the sentiment expressed by the residents now residing at Woodside. A community of spirited citizens has sprung up in that section. All questions pertaining to the welfare of the park are freely discussed by residents at meetings. It is expected that this section will be completely sold during the next few months.(18)

A week later the Washington Times headlined that sales in Woodside Park had reached $250,000 according to Hopkins-Armstrong.(19)

The $250,000 figure was a wild exaggeration, as was the comment about a community of spirited citizens having sprung up.. The previous week's $20,000 sales figure, was closer to the truth. Only three lots representing total sales of $7,444.08 (including interest charges listed in "bond for deed" sales) had gone to settlement by this time. Perhaps contracts for some of the four lots that went to settlement on February 1, 1923 had also been signed by this time; if all were included, the Woodside Development Corporation could legitimately claim sales of $25,944.08. In any event, no new homes had been constructed, and no "community of spirited citizens" had yet sprung up unless Mr. Hopkins was referring to his own family, which was living in a Woodside Park home that predated the establishment of the subdivision.(20)

As spring approached, the developers redoubled their efforts to interest the public in the Noyes mansion, the landscaped grounds of Alton Farm, and for the first time, the architecture of homes to be built in Woodside Park. They established a series of weekly lectures in the Noyes mansion. In late February the "Woodside Park (Noyes Estate) Educational Course" was announced in a news story in the Washington Times and in a large ad in the Washington Post. The Times story noted that the lecture series was what the Hopkins Land Company termed "the first move toward co-operative home-planning."(21) The ad in the Post expanded on this theme:

As a stimulus to the highest possible development of the acre plots of Woodside Park, and in order that home builders may have the benefit of the best thought on the various branches of home building, we have arranged for a series of illustrated lectures by men of national reputation in their particular lines of study, to take place in the living room of the Noyes Mansion at Woodside Park.

The lecture series was a stroke of marketing genius; Washington had never seen anything like it. Woodside Park received considerable free publicity from the lectures. Besides the article announcing the series in the Times of February 24, 1923, the Times and the Herald ran identical articles on March 3, 1923, on the lecture series and the first lecture by Stephen Child scheduled for the next day. Mr. Child was described by The Washington Post as a "noted city planner." His topic was to be "The Importance of Landscape Architecture in Planning the Home."(22)

On March 10, 1923, The Evening Star reported on Stephen Child's lecture concerning landscape architecture of the previous week and stated that 200 people were expected to attend Robert F. Beresford's lecture on "Colonial Architecture" scheduled for the next afternoon. Robert F. Beresford had designed hundreds of colonial style homes in the Washington area. That same day the Times and the Herald ran identical stories about the Beresford lecture, Stephen Child's lecture the week before, and the rest of the lecture series. The Times even ran Mr. Beresford's picture with a caption about the lecture separately from its article.(23) The next day the Post featured the lectures on the front page of its real estate section, said that several hundred home builders had attended the lecture the previous Sunday, and noted that:

Hopkins-Armstrong, Inc. considers these lectures to constitute the most effective method of producing a harmonious and beautiful subdivision. Of the many Washington residents who have purchased acre plots at Woodside Park, the majority plan to erect homes early this spring. In order to form a well proportioned home colony, bearing the refined atmosphere of the modern suburb, Woodside purchasers will build their homes along the most uniform architectural lines.(24)

A week later all four papers had stories about Robert F. Beresford's colonial architecture lecture. Hundreds of people attended.(25)

News stories also appeared about other lectures in the series. The next lecture was again by Stephen Child; this time he spoke on "Planting and Garden Design for the Suburban Home." The next week Miss Blanch Corwin, whom the Post termed "an authority on home economics," spoke on "The Kitchen--Workshop of the Home." The Post, the Times, and the Herald all reported extensively (and in almost identical words) on her recommendations for kitchen design, including the importance of having drain boards on each side of the sink. Ms. Corwin used lantern slides to illustrate a poorly arranged kitchen compared to a well planned one and "the advantages of a clean, level floor in the kitchen." The last lecture took place a week later and was by Alfred R. Lee. He spoke on "Poultry Raising on a Suburban Plot."(26) Hopkins-Armstrong provided a car to take people interested in attending the lectures from the trolley stop at what is now Georgia Avenue and Colesville Road to the Noyes mansion.(27)

Periodic news stories about Woodside Park continued to appear even after the lecture series was over. For example, in April the Washington Post reported progress in building streets although no new homes had yet been built. The Post also noted:

The splendid woods resound to the buzz of the saw which has been at work during the winter clearing roadways and thinning out the woods to give them a parklike effect.

Next week an additional force will be added on the work of erecting two beautiful entrances on Brookeville pike, one at Highland drive and one at Noyes drive. These entrances were designed by Robert F. Beresford, Washington architect, and will be colonial in style and, as far as practical, will be built of native materials. Both will include shelters for those waiting for the cars [trolleys].

Estate Noted as Show Place

This property, from the standpoint of planning and landscaping effects, has been considered one of the show places around Washington and it is particularly inviting at this season with a rare variety of early-flowering plants.

As the cherry trees of Potomac park are considered one of the sights of Washington in spring, so the grounds of the beautiful Noyes estate are still worth a visit to those interested in beautiful shrubs and plants bursting into bloom.(28)

In early May the Washington Times confirmed the view that Woodside Park was indeed a beautiful area worthy of visit when it published (immediately above a story headlined "Fiji Islanders Like Our Bathing Beauties") a large photograph of "the famous Dogwood Drive at Woodside Park (Noyes estate), now in full bloom." The caption went on to say "Many homebuilders have chosen this spot as Washington's ideal suburb."(29)

Hopkins-Armstrong also stepped up their paid advertising campaign in March to take advantage of the free publicity from the lectures. A large ad in early March described improvements to be built in the spring, including a "swimming pool [that] will be one of the features of a highly embellished parkway." The ad stated prices to be from 5¢ to 10¢ per square foot.(30) The advertising campaign continued in April, May, and June with emphasis on the fact that Woodside Park was "in the right direction," directly in the path of the most active building activity in Washington and just above prestigious Sixteenth Street. The ads also emphasized the extensive improvements that were under way. Two crews were said to be at work building five miles of paved streets; three "beautiful entrances" were to be erected on Brookeville Pike. Noyes Drive and Highland Drive were to have entrance gates designed with stone pillars connected by Grecian (flat) arches. On one side of the street the Grecian arches connected to a colonial style small stone shelter for people waiting for the trolley. Woodside Parkway was to receive a terraced entrance. The swimming pool to be built on Alton Parkway was also touted.(31)

Line drawings of the elegant natural stone entrance gates as designed by Robert F. Beresford were featured in Woodside Park ads in April, May, and June. In selecting Beresford, Hopkins-Armstrong had not skimped on architectural talent. Beresford designed many residences in the Washington area and worked with Warren and Wetmore on the design of the Mayflower Hotel. He also worked on the Tower Building at 1401 K Street, N.W. He was president of the Washington-Metropolitan Chapter of the American Institute of Architects in 1927 and 1928.(32)

Exceptional architecture continued to be a hallmark of the development of Woodside Park. In June 1924 the first completed house ever offered for sale in Woodside Park was advertised. It was advertised as having been built with plans which won first prize at "Better Homes Week" expositions in both New York and Chicago. Hopkins-Armstrong offered the house at 9111 Woodland Drive for $10,500 (equivalent to about $89,000 in 1992 dollars) if the buyer would accept it on only a quarter acre plot rather than its full acre lot. The home had a center hall plan, three bedrooms and a bath on the second floor. The first floor included a large living room and screened porch. Hopkins-Armstrong used the ads for this house to also boost Woodside Park in general, particularly noting "the beautiful park plan" and "wide choice of home sites as to size, shape, topography exposure,

Woodside Park Ad, Evening Star, May 5, 1923, p. 16.

Woodside Park Ad, Washington Post, June 8, 1924, p. R-6.

trees and price." The ads also mentioned that half acre plots were available at a price of from 8¢ to 12¢ per square foot and that homesites in Woodside Park were a good investment.(33)

In late spring 1925, Hopkins-Armstrong began a series of ads promoting the beauty of the area and the fact that quarter and half acre lots as well as full acre lots were available "in the direct line of growth." Lots were available from $1,000 up and potential buyers were advised to "consult our architectural and building department added to our service." There was "a remarkably wide choice of lots of character; treed or sunny open slopes, flat or rolling. All of nature's most attractive

charms have been preserved. Boulders, rivulets and towering oaks. Many beautiful homes owned by friendly neighbors. Streets paved, water and electricity installed."(34)

The "architectural and building department" would soon become the Woodside Development Corporation's Woodside Homes Corporation subsidiary under the direction of notable local architect Jules Henri de Sibour. Jules Henri de Sibour was one of Washington's most prominent architects. Among other major projects, he designed the McCormick Apartments, now the home of the National Trust for Historic Preservation, at 1875 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.; the Thomas T. Gaff house, now the Embassy of Columbia, at 1520 20th Street, N.W.; the Clarence Moore House, the former Canadian Embassy, at 1746 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.; the William Watson Lawrence house, now the French Embassy, at 2221 Kalorama Road, N.W.; the Alexander Stewart house, now the Embassy of Luxembourg, at 2200 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.; and the Jefferson Hotel at 1200 Sixteenth Street, N.W.(35)

De Sibour's Woodside Park homes were much more modest. Beginning in the spring of 1926 his "Trails End," at 1524 Grace Church Road was offered for $14,500. It was a typical two story Colonial home built of brick. Rather than having a center hall, its front door and porch were at the right side of the house. It had six rooms plus a glassed-in sleeping porch with radiator. It also had a built-in garage at the basement level under a large covered porch on the right side of the home. The home had a slate roof. It was said to be set in a grove of splendid oaks. Other features included a paved street, city water, electricity, and phones. Another de Sibour home, "The Dale," at 1512 Grace Church Road (but Dale Drive at that time, hence the name) was offered for $50 less than

Woodside Park Ad, Washington Post, April 11, 1926, p. R-7.

Woodside Park Ad, Washington Post, April 25, 1926, p. R-5.

"Trails End." "The Dale" was advertised as having seven room and the same features as "Trails End." Architecturally, it differed from "Trails End" in that its gable faced the street.(36)

De Sibour also designed and built the home at 1518 Grace Church Road. This home was quite similar to "Trails End," except that its first floor was stone and the second floor was shingled. The chimney was also at the right side of the home rather than the left. Ads for this home and others on the block noted that the "Giant Oaks Fringing This Picturesque Winding Road Make the Setting of the Homes one of Rare Beauty." The home had "a comfortable living room with open fireplace, reception hall, dining room, convenient kitchen equipped with electric range and kitchen cabinet, three bedrooms and glassed-in sleeping porch, built-in garage, entrance, side and back porches, hot-water heat, hardwood floors, [and a] rubber tile bath."(37)

Also offered at this time and probably designed by de Sibour was "The Fireside," at 1310 Noyes Drive. Its price was $14,850. It was said to have six very large sunny rooms, a massive stone chimney and fireplace, and a cool, protected porch for summer. Its elevation was said to be almost 400 feet and it was said to be only a two minute walk from the Sixteenth Street bus line (which apparently ran along Georgia Avenue since Sixteenth Street would not be extended north of East-West Highway for another thirty years).(38)

De Sibour also designed and built "Twin Gables Cottage" at 1505 Grace Church Road. When the home was offered for resale in 1933 it was described in two articles in The Washington Post as a beautifully decorated "all-brick home of Cape Cod design in a charming sylvan setting framed against a background of towering trees on a corner lot containing over 20,000 sq. ft. of ground." The Cape Cod description is not particularly accurate. The home has two front gabled brick ends with a wooden center section between them. A large dormer window is built into the roof of the center section. The home is built into a hill side with the front on the lower side of the hill. The main floor therefore appears to be at second floor level from the front of the house. The front door is reached from a large center stairway.(39)

The idea of using prominent architects to attract lot buyers who would build well designed homes, which would then attract even more lot buyers, apparently worked. One prominent home completed in 1926 was "Woodside," at 9033 Georgia Avenue. This large two story Georgian Colonial style home with three dormers in its third floor attic was built for Charles and Sadie Williams, who had purchased the lot in 1923. The home contained four bedrooms, two baths, a "fine library with a fireplace, a large living room, and a glassed-in breakfast porch.(40)

Woodside Park Ad showing "Stonecroft," 1201 Woodside Parkway,

Washington Post, June 13, 1926, p. R-3.

Another attractive home completed in 1926 was at 1211 Woodside Parkway, which was built for J. Reginald Boyd. The stucco Cotswold Cottage style home, which has 9 foot ceilings, chestnut woodwork, and wrought ironwork on the staircase, was designed by Rodier & Kundzen, AIA. The first floor contains a foyer, living room with fireplace, dining room, kitchen, and bath. The second floor has three bedrooms and two baths. The basement contains a recreation room. French doors open from the living room to the enclosed terrace with a formal fish pond between the house and the garage. This home was used to demonstrate the type of homes in Woodside Park in ads appearing in 1929.(41)

Interest in architecture was also used to promote the neighborhood in 1927. On the weekend of March 26-27, 1927, both the Evening Star and the Washington Post ran long illustrated articles on the completion of Philander D. Poston's "Stonecroft" at 1201 Woodside Parkway. Although "Stonecroft" was not for sale, it was open for public inspection on Saturday, March 26th and Sunday, April 3rd. The Star's article on page 1 of its real estate section featured a photo as well as the floor plan for the house. The house, like its neighbor at 1211 Woodside Parkway, was designed by Rodier and Kundzen architects. The Star's article described the interior of the home in detail and said: "Standing alone on the crest of a long, rounded hill which overlooks three lovely wooded valleys, this home, which is in thorough keeping with its rural setting, presents a picture not soon to be forgotten. Extensive landscaping, with spacious lawns, rose terraces, stone entrances and winding driveway, is planned to enhance the beauty of the place and soften the simple exterior of the house."

The Post also waxed eloquently about the house and the neighborhood:

Hugging the crest of a long, graceful hill, which fades gently into two little winding brooks lined with large boulders and graceful old trees, and overlooking three beautiful valleys, is a home of unusual distinction and simple beauty, quite unlike anything around Washington.

. . . .

The splendid work of the fine arts commission, the Federal planning commission and other bodies looking to the preservation of the few remaining beauty spots of suburban Washington is being exemplified in the development of Woodside Park, a 200-acre tract, upon which large sums were spent for many years by the late Crosby Noyes in enhancing its natural beauty. The demand of these Federal commissions for the building of really artistic homes on large tracts is being happily met here.

. . . .

From a construction standpoint [the house] is built like a battleship and is destined to reach a very ripe old age when compared with houses of current build. Judged by the inner and outer character of the house, one would think it had been created at the hands of some of the highly skilled master workers of an earlier day.

The interior of the home, the landscaping, and even the guest house in the back, which was said to have been "built unaided" by the Postons, were described in detail. The Post also had a number of ads by the suppliers and builders involved in the construction of the house. The Capital Wall Paper Company noted, for example, that "Wall papers used in the Poston Home were furnished by us." The Silver Spring Building Supply Company advertised that it had furnished the lumber, stock and special mill-work, and Celotex insulation. Their ad even carried an endorsement from Philander Poston saying "I'm for Celotex, for it combines both comfort and economy. It was used throughout the ceiling on the second floor, and, with a big 10-room house on a windswept hill, but a fraction over two tons of coal has been used each month. In addition two bathrooms and garage were heated. If it gives as much protection from Summer's heat as it has from Winter's cold, you've got a winner."(42)

Architects were also attracted to build their own homes in the neighborhood. Indeed, three architects employed in the office of the Supervising Architect of the Treasury, which preceded the General Services Administration as being responsible for design and construction of federal government buildings, built their own homes in Woodside Park. One example is the home at 1227 Pinecrest Circle, which was built and occupied in 1928 by architect Graham H. Woolfall. Woolfall bought a lot of about 14,000 square feet and built his home called "Pinecrest" in the English half timbered Tudor style. It contained ten rooms, including five bedrooms, a living room with a beamed ceiling, dining room, study, and recreation room. The house was nestled among large trees which were disturbed as little as possible during the construction. Woolfall also built a swimming pool behind the house. This was reportedly the first private pool in Woodside Park.(43)

Arthur L. Blakeslee, "Senior Architect of the Treasury Department," built his home at 1108 Highland Drive. This home was featured in another ad for Woodside Park just five days before the "Black Thursday" stock market crash that signaled the beginning of the Depression. Mr. Blakeslee's home had a 17' by 24' living room with a high, open beamed ceiling and a massive stone fireplace, three bedrooms, two baths, and a wrought iron witch flying on a broomstick on its chimney. The Woodside Park ad said in large type: "The Home Shown Above is Representative of the CHARACTER of HOMES Now Being Designed and Built Especially for the Owners in WOODSIDE PARK." The ad emphasized that Woodside Park was a community of 100% home owners, that Hopkins-Armstrong would secure architects and builders for buyers and that "by this method you save money by eliminating a speculative builder's profits and secure a 'made to order' home instead of a 'ready-made' home." The ad also noted that values were "certain to increase."(44)

The third of Woodside Park's Treasury Department architects, Warren R. Seltzer, built his home at 1234 Pinecrest Circle, across from Graham Woolfall's home, in 1928 and 1929. Mr. Seltzer was later involved in the design of the Federal Triangle, the Supreme Court Building, and many post offices, including the Silver Spring Post Office which was built on Georgia Avenue just south of Wayne Avenue as a Works Progress Administration project in 1936. He also designed (at no fee) the home at 1519 Dale Drive for his aunt and uncle and was involved with design of the entrance, altar rails and other elements of St. Luke Church at Colesville Road and Dale Drive. Mr. Seltzer's Woodside Park home was featured in "Building Age" magazine in 1928 or 1929 and fully described right down to the provisions in the basement for "a laundry and servant's toilet." It was also noted that windows in the living room and the master bedroom upstairs faced three sides of the house and made the rooms "delightfully cool even on the hottest summer nights." "The English character of the woodwork is carried out into the house. The hewn ceiling beam, plank oak flooring and built-in fire place with its wood benches and flagstone hearth all add interest and charm to the well-lighted and cross-ventilated combination living-dining room."(45)

Other Architects were also attracted to Woodside Park. One example is Frank G. Beatty, who designed and built the large Cape Cod style home at 1401 Woodside Parkway. The home won the Washington Board of Trade's Diploma of Merit as of "superior design among the buildings erected in the year 1937." The home was described as a "charming one and one-half story brick residence in the Virginia manner." The central one and one-half story portion of the house is flanked on both sides by one story wings. The wing on the right serves as a large garage with entrance at the rear. The wing's use as a garage can not be detected from either the front or the side of the house. The home has a number of clever design features such as a mail slot by the front door that opens to a chamber within the wall. A small door built into the wall allows access to the mail.

With the coming of the Depression, sales activity in Woodside Park slowed. In 1933 the Hopkins-Armstrong firm dissolved and the Thomas E. Jarrell Company became the sales agent for the Woodside Development Corporation.(46) The Thomas E. Jarrell Company had been involved in the development of Woodside Park in one way or another even before the beginning of the project. Thomas E. Jarrell, who ran a real estate agency and an insurance brokerage, and who was also president of the Washington Savings Bank, had taken an option on Alton Farm but transferred the option to the Woodside Development Corporation. In mid-1923 he purchased the old Noyes mansion and the 10.5 acre block surrounding it from the Woodside Development Corporation. His initial plan was to sell the property, including the mansion, intact for use by one of Washington's city clubs. Despite using the property as the site for barbecues, oyster roasts, and picnics by the Board of Trade, the City Club, the Acacia Mutual Life Association, and other groups, he was unable to find a buyer. In late 1924, he concluded that the old mansion was not salable. He demolished it, dedicated streets, and subdivided the block into lots for "suburban homes of the better class."(47)

After a name selection contest which resulted in the new subdivision being named Wynnewood Park, Jarrell began building homes and selling lots.(48) Alton Farm in general, and the area around the old mansion in particular, had been noted for trees and shrubs brought from all over the world. Jarrell capitalized on this, just as had the Woodside Development Corporation. Early ads noted that the trees and shrubs had been preserved. "These age-old monarchs of forest of bygone days are of great beauty and value to the property owners of WYNNEWOOD."(49)

Throughout the development process, which lasted into 1938, Jarrell emphasized the fine landscape architecture of Alton Farm and how it had been preserved in his subdivision. This theme was important not only in ads but also in news articles about the subdivision. Typical is the story "Nature is Retained in Wynnewood Park," which appeared on the first page of the Washington Post's real estate section on April 21, 1929:


Homes Built Beneath Trees in Jarrell Development Beyond Sligo(50)

No Fences Anywhere

A suburban development, in which man and nature worked together in the production of a residential park, is to be found in Wynnewood Park, the Thomas E. Jarrell Co. project on the Colesville Pike, a short distance beyond Sligo.

It might be termed "the park built upon a lawn," and the houses described as "the homes built beneath the trees," as these not only describe Wynnewood Park but are literally true, for the entire project is located upon the home site of the Crosby S. Noyes estate which was held in the Noyes family until a few years ago.

No steam shovel was employed in the construction work to level off the natural beauties of knoll and dale. No straight lines were used to lay off streets and sidewalks reducing everything to squares. Instead every curve that nature placed in the contour of the land to lend softness and beauty to the surroundings was preserved.

Drives in Graceful Curves

The drives swing in graceful curves, leading up slight inclines and falling away again as they pass on down the sides of knolls. To preserve their beauty and maintain the characteristics of a park, no sidewalks have been built, the greenness of the lawns developed through many years spreading from the houses to the edge of the roadways.

A new development, Wynnewood Park, nevertheless has that atmosphere of hominess that is associated only with places which have been lived in for years. This is due largely to the vision which has been behind the entire project. As nearly as possible, nothing that was on the old estate, with the exception of the buildings, has been disturbed. Even the foundation of the residence of the former owners was utilized in the construction of one home [1000 Mansion Drive] which is situated upon four large lots bounded by a winding road on either side leading away from the center road which provides entrance to the park.

The trees of Wynnewood Park, gathered with painstaking care from many parts of the world by the former owners, have all been preserved. On the 10 acres of this heart of the old Noyes estate are to be found cherry blossom trees from the Orient, walnuts from England, locusts from Jerusalem, dogwoods, magnolias of many types, firs, cedars, pine, red and branch maples, elms, apples, cherries, poplars and many others. Scattered throughout the park are scores of varieties of shrubbery, such as althea, syringa, Spanish bayonet, lilac, wigelia, forsythia, spirea, hydrangea, and many other kinds.

Into this setting, developed to beautify the surroundings of the mansion of the estate, the new homes have been insinuated. They have not been thrust into the picture, for the lots have been so divided and the homes so constructed that each one has fitted harmoniously into the location without the loss of a tree and with only slight disturbance of shrubbery.

No Barriers Between Lots

The general effect of spaciousness and the atmosphere of a park is further preserved by the entire lack of barriers between the various lots. No hedges rise to stand as a bar, however beautiful, between neighbors. No fences are to be found. Here and there a border of roses or of flowers mark out the limits of a home, but they stand not as border lines.

Incidentally, the soil of Wynnewood Park, developed through the years, presents to the flower lover a medium for the production of the blooms in which he takes delight. A foot or more of friable loam composes the surface soil, which lies on top of many feet of closely packed sand [sic].

The atmosphere of a park of homes rather than a real estate development is preserved by the entire absence of duplication in the designs of houses constructed. Dutch colonial, English colonial, Spanish and other types are represented. The materials are varied as the designs, including stone, stucco, tinted stucco, brick, clapboard, and shingle. The winding nature of the drives make it easy to avoid any straight line facing of the homes. This, coupled with the generous width of the lots, assures from every window of every house a beautiful picture.

Playground for Children

Wynnewood Park offers a playground for children. The open air, sunshine, the freedom from dangers of traffic, the velvety lawns, all combine to make conditions ideal for the youngsters. Near the park is the Woodside School, one of the largest in Montgomery County, and the children of Wynnewood Park find access easy through a short, shady lane where the trees meet overhead to provide shelter from both rain and sunshine.

Just a few steps from Wynnewood will be one of the entrances to the new park which Montgomery County is developing along the Sligo Branch, a park which will contain bridle paths, automobile roads, tennis courts, playgrounds of all sorts and a swimming pool. Surrounding Wynnewood Park on three sides is the rest of the Noyes Estate, which like Wynnewood, is carefully restricted and in which the minimum home site is half an acre. From Wynnewood, one sees the same care being take to maintain all the knolls and ravines, all of the rolling meadows and the clumps of trees which nature has placed upon this picturesque spot.

In fact, the description of Wynnewood Park applied as much, if not more, to Woodside Park as it did to Wynnewood Park. The 10.5 acres of Woodside Park that became Wynnewood Park were generally only very slightly rolling; they did not have "knoll and dale." In any event, the same themes could be used in marketing both developments, particularly after Jarrell took over the marketing of Woodside Park as well as Wynnewood Park.

Jarrell also paralleled Woodside Park's emphasis on architecture. Rather than holding lectures and attracting architects to build in the subdivision, he, through his Stambaugh Construction Company, built houses of varying styles for speculative sale. Among the styles in Wynnewood Park are a half-timbered Tudor home [1005 North Noyes Drive] featured as a Washington Post model home in 1930;(51) "Villa Carmen," a Spanish Colonial bungalow [1003 North Mansion Drive]; and a rubble stone home designed by Gilbert L. Rodier (a principal of Allied Architects of Washington, designers of the Longworth House Office Building) to blend English and early American architecture [9021 Fairview Road]. Rodier's home was featured in the Evening Star's real estate section in 1929.(52) Other homes include a large wooden Dutch Colonial home [1014 Woodside Parkway]; and an Italian Renaissance home built for Jarrell's son and daughter-in-law [1001 North Mansion Drive].

Today, the distinction between Wynnewood Park and Woodside Park appears only on deeds; both are considered by residents to be Woodside Park. Although the developers of Woodside Park, including the Wynnewood Park blocks, were not as successful financially as they might have wished--the Woodside Development Corporation collapsed during the Depression and its successor company finally sold the last lot in 1944, while Thomas E. Jarrell built and sold the last Wynnewood Park home in 1938, fifteen years after purchasing Woodside Park's Block D and the Noyes Mansion--the slow development of the neighborhood cannot be attributed to the public's rejection of an emphasis on architecture and landscape architecture as important features in selecting a suburban home or home site. Rather, the Depression intervened, slowing both lot sales and home construction. Even after a post-War boom in home construction in Woodside Park, some lots remained vacant until the 1970s and 1980s. Indeed, a very few still remain vacant. As a result of their emphasis on architecture and landscape architecture, however, they created a neighborhood which could serve as a style book for domestic architecture. Almost every style of home built in the United States from the early 20th Century until today can be found. This fact, combined with the way in which landscape architecture was emphasized in the planning of the neighborhood has contributed greatly to making Woodside Park one of the most stable and best preserved neighborhoods in lower Montgomery County.

Wynnewood Park Ad showing 1014 Woodside Parkway, Evening Star, October 31,1925, p. 19.

Wynnewood Park Ad Showing "Villa Carmen," 1003 North Mansion Drive, Washington Post, May 6, 1928, p. R-1.

When the Historic Preservation Planning Staff of the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission recommended Woodside Park for designation as an historic district in 1989, they said:

"Woodside Park was more than a typical 1920s development . . . it was really prototypical. . . . Although there are many neighborhoods with some of the same characteristics and architectural housing types as Woodside Park, staff has concluded that Woodside Park is not only the most intact subdivision of the period, but also that its basic design and development is probably the purest manifestation of the '20s/'30s suburban ideal to have been built in Montgomery County. [Other contemporary neighborhoods do not] have the sylvan, park-like character that many subdivisions of the period aspired to but that few actually were able to create. Woodside Park did create this ideal sort of ambiance and has, amazingly, maintained it over the years to a great degree."(53)

Woodside Park created and maintained the ideal sort of ambiance because its developers understood the importance of both architecture and landscape architecture in creating an environment in which people want to live. It is not amazing that this type of environment could be created and maintained for over 70 years in Woodside Park while Silver Spring was developed and now redeveloped around it. What is amazing is that so many other developers failed to learn from the example set by Woodside Park.

1. Montgomery County land records, liber 324, folio 240 (deed dated November 14, 1922; filed December 22, 1922). See also liber 329, folio 74 (deed of trust dated December 1, 1922; filed December 22, 1922). The deed lists an Internal Revenue tax paid of $160.00. The tax rate specified for such transactions in the Revenue Act of 1921 was 50¢ per $500.00.

2. By terms of the deed, the greenhouse did not convey to the Woodside Development Corporation. Presumably the Noyes heirs planned to sell it or move it elsewhere, but they did not do so promptly. When a deed selling the land on which the greenhouse was built was issued by the Woodside Development Corporation in May 1923, the provision excepting the greenhouse was retained. See Montgomery County land records, liber 324, folio 240 and liber 332, folio 427.

3. Inventory contained in letter to Theodore W. Noyes from B. F. Leighton, December 11, 1914. Woodside Park Civic Association history files.

4. Tarvia was a trademarked viscid road surfacing and bonding material made from coal tar.

5. Hopkins-Armstrong ads, Washington Post, September 23, 1923, p. R-7 and Evening Star, October 20, 1923, p. 16.

6. The southern-most toll gate on the Colesville and Ashton Turnpike was just north of today's Dale Drive at the current site of Mrs. K's Toll House Restaurant.

7. One early resident of Woodside Park is quoted as saying that the head of the moving crew that had just moved the furniture into his new house handed him his business card as he was leaving and said "in case you decide to move back to town."

8. Photo "Noyes Mansion, Woodside Park," Washington Herald, November 11, 1922, p. 10; Woodside Development Corp. ad, Washington Herald, November 11, 1922, p. 11.

9. The restrictions in effect served as zoning requirements before Montgomery County adopted zoning. Only detached single family homes costing at least $6,000 could be erected in Woodside Park. Homes had to be used exclusively for residential purposes. Homes had to be built at least forty feet back from the right of way line of the streets. Since some streets had 100 foot rights of way and even the narrowest streets had 50 foot rights of way, houses on opposite sides of the streets would be from 130 to 180 feet apart. In addition, although buyers could divide their large lots, they could not create new lots less than 50 feet wide and could not divide their lots front and back. The practical effect of this restriction was to preserve large lots even if lot buyers decided to sell part of their acre plot. In most cases it was impossible to subdivide the original large lots into more than two or three smaller lots of a third to a half acre. Deeds also contained a racial restriction as was common at the time: "For purposes of sanitation and health" no owner "will sell or lease the said land to anyone of a race whose death rate is a higher percentage than the white race." All restrictions were to expire on January 1, 1950. See: Woodside Development Corporation et al v. Louis B. Schneider, Montgomery County Judgement Record Volume 82, pages 137-144. See especially the second paragraph under 5-G, page 139 and 5-C, page 138.

10. "Plans Residential Park on Old Estate," Washington Post, November 12, 1922, p. R-1.

11. Ads in Washington Post, November 12, 1922, p. R-2, and Evening Star, November 18, 1922, p. 17.

12. Woodside Development Corp. ad in the Washington Post, November 19, 1922, p. R-2. Ads with the same or similar text also appeared in other Washington newspapers this same weekend and the previous weekend.

13. Washington Times, November 25, 1922, p. 2-7 and photo p. 2-6; Washington Herald, November 25, 1922, p. 10.

14. Hopkins Land Company ads in the Evening Star, November 25, 1922, p. 21, Washington Herald, November 25, 1922, p. 11, Washington Times, November 25, 1922, p. 2-5, and Washington Post, November 26, 1922, p. R-2.

15. Hopkins Land Company ads in the Evening Star, December 2, 1922, p. 17, Washington Times, December 2, 1922, p. 2-2, Washington Herald, December 2, 1922, p. 9, and Washington Post, December 3, 1922, p. R-2.

16. News items in the Washington Times, December 2, 1922, p. 2-2 and Washington Herald, December 2, 1922, p. 10; Hopkins Land Company ads in the Evening Star, December 9, 1922, p. 17, December 23, 1922, p. 14, December 30, 1922, p. 14; Washington Post, December 10, 1922, p. R-3, December 17, 1922, p. R-2, December 24, 1922, p. R-2, and December 31, 1922, p. R-13; Washington Times, December 16, 1922, p. 2-2, December 23, 1922, p. 2-2; and Washington Herald, December 16, 1922, p. 14, and December 23, 1922, p. 8.

17. Hopkins-Armstrong, Inc. ads in Washington Post, January 7, 1923, p. R-4 and January 14, 1923, p. R-4, and in the Washington Times, January 13, 1923, p. 14.

18. "Woodside Park Closes Big Year," Washington Times, January 6, 1923, p. 15 and "Records Smashed at Woodside Park," Washington Herald, January 6, 1923, p. 7. The text of both articles is identical.

19. Washington Times, January 13, 1923, p. 14.

20. Sales figures are based on Internal Revenue tax amounts listed in deeds and total amounts listed in "Bond for Deed" sales, as recorded in the Montgomery County land records office for sales by the Woodside Development Corporation. The federal transfer tax at the time was $0.50 per $500.00 or fraction thereof of the sales price.

21. "Lectures Aim to Beautify Woodside," Washington Times, February 24, 1923, p. 15, and Hopkins-Armstrong, Inc. ad in the Washington Post, February 25, 1923, p. R-4.

22. Washington Herald, March 3, 1923, p. 8; Washington Times, March 3, 1923, p. 3.

23. Evening Star, March 10, 1923, p. 3; Washington Herald, March 10, 1923, p. 8; Washington Times, March 10, 1923, p. 15; and Pamela Scott & Antoinette J. Lee, Buildings of the District of Columbia, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993, p. 225.

24. Washington Post, March 11, 1923, p. R-1.

25. Evening Star, March 17, 1923, p. 1; Washington Herald, March 17, 1923, p. 6; Washington Times, March 17, 1923, p. 14; and Washington Post, March 18, 1923, p. R-3.

26. Washington Herald, March 24, 1923, p. 10; Washington Post, March 25, 1923, p. R-2; Hopkins-Armstrong ads in the Washington Post, February 25, 1923, p. R-4, Evening Star, March 3, 1923, Washington Times, March 3, 1923, p. 3, Washington Post, March 4, 1924, p. R-4; Washington Herald, March 10, 1923, p. 8, and Washington Times, March 10, 1923, p. 15.

27. Washington Post, March 11, 1923, p. R-2 (advertising colonial architecture lecture and noting that an Hopkins-Armstrong car would meet the Forest Glen trolley); Washington Post, March 18, 1923, p. R-4 (advertising Planting and Garden Design lecture). News stories in the Washington Post, March 25, 1923, p. R-2, Washington Herald, March 3, 1923, p. 8, Washington Herald, March 10, 1923, p. 8, Washington Herald, March 17, 1923, p. 6, Washington Herald, March 24, 1923, p. 10, Washington Times, March 3, 1923, p. 3, Washington Times, March 10, 1923, p. 15, and Washington Times, March 17, 1923, p. 14.

28. "Work Being Pushed at Woodside Park," Washington Post, April 15, 1923, p. R-3.

29. Washington Times, May 5, 1923, p. 15.

30. Hopkins-Armstrong ad, Washington Post, March 4, 1923, p. R-4.

31. Hopkins-Armstrong ads in the Evening Star, March 3 & 31, 1923; April 21 & 28, 1923; May 5, 1923; in the Washington Post, April 1, 1923, p. R-3; April 8, 1923, p. R-2; April 22, 1923, p. R-8; April 29, 1923, p. R-5; May 6, 1923, p. R-5; and June 10, 1923, p. R-2; in the Washington Herald, March 31, 1923, p. 9; and in the Washington Times, March 31, 1923, p. 14; April 28, 1923, p. 14; and May 5, 1923, p. 17.

32. "Work Being Pushed at Woodside Park," Washington Post, April 15, 1923, p. R-3; "Rob Beresford Was Architect for Notable Buildings" [obituary], Evening Star, December 21, 1966; "Robert Beresford District Architect" [obituary] Washington Post, December 21, 1966; Scott, Pamela and Lee, Antoinette J., Buildings of the District of Columbia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993, p. 225.

33. Hopkins-Armstrong ads in Washington Post, June 8, 1924, p. R-6 and June 15, 1924, p. R-5; Hopkins-Armstrong ad in the Evening Star, June 21, 1924, p. 17. The description of the home's layout is from a resale ad, Evening Star, August 22, 1942, p. B-4.

34. Hopkins-Armstrong ads, Washington Post, March 22, 1925, p. R-4; April 5, 1925, p. R-2; and May 10, 1925, p. R-4.

35. Scott, Pamela, and Lee, Antoinette J., Buildings of the District of Columbia, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

36. Washington Post ads, April 11, 1926, p. R-7, and April 18, 1926, p. R-6.

37. Washington Post ads, November 8, 1925, p. R-5; November 15, 1925, p. R-4. Evening Star ad, November 14, 1925, p. 19.

38. Washington Post ads, April 11, 1926, p. R-7; April 18, 1926, p. R-6; and April 25, 1926, p. R-5.

39. Washington Post ads, May 18, 1933, p. R-3; June 11, 1933, p. R-3; June 18, 1933, p. R-3; June 25, 1933, p. R-1; July 2, 1933, p. R-3; and July 9, 1933, p. R-3. Evening Star ad, July 15, 1933, p. B-1. Washington Post articles, July 2, 1933, p. R-1, and July 9, 1933, p. R-1.

40. Evening Star resale ad, May 4, 1940, p. B-10, and May 11, 1940, p. B-10.

41. Date from Montgomery County tax records. Description from Pardoe Real Estate information, June 1994. Evening Star ads, June 1, 1929, p. 17, and October 26, 1929, p. 8.

42. Evening Star, March 26, 1927 (front page of real estate section); Washington Post article and ads, March 27, 1927, p. R-9.

43. Washington Post resale ad, June 21, 1936, p. R-5.

44. Evening Star ad, October 19, 1929, p. 8, and resale ad describing 1108 Highland Drive, May 9, 1942, p. B-4.

45. In 1989 the home had a substantial addition constructed at the left and front in a way that makes the addition virtually impossible to distinguish from the original construction. Indeed, the stone used to accent the addition's exterior walls matches the accenting stone of the original section of the house. This stone, which was excavated near East-West Highway when Connecticut Avenue was extended, contains unusual iron deposits that have long since rusted out to leave soft red streaks. The stone accenting the addition came from original stone that had been used to build a small backyard fish pond and from extra stone left over from when 1227 Pinecrest Circle was built.

46. "Jarrell Co. Agent for Woodside Park," Washington Post, April 9, 1933, p. R-1.

47. "C.S. Noyes Estate To Be Subdivided," Washington Herald, November 11, 1924, p. 6.

48. Thomas E. Jarrell Co. ad, Evening Star, November 1, 1924, p. 18, and November 22, 1924, p. 19.

49. Thomas E. Jarrell Co. ad, Washington Post, September 26, 1926, p. R-6.

50. Sligo was the area near the intersection of Colesville Road and Georgia Avenue and was listed as such on Maryland state highway maps into the 1950s. Silver Spring referred to the area near Georgia Avenue and the B&O Railroad underpass. At one time each had a separate post office. Even in the 1920s, however, the term "Silver Spring" increasingly was used to refer to both areas.

51. "Wynnewood Park Home Open Today," Washington Post, April 27, 1930, p. R-1.

52. "Wynnewood Park Home Blends Architecturally," Evening Star, April 13, 1929, p. 13.

53. Memorandum from Historic Preservation Planning Staff to Montgomery County Planning Board, "Staff Recommendations on 20th Century Historic Resources," March 21, 1989, pp. 6 - 7.